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Kidney stones are small, hard mineral deposits that can form in the kidneys or urinary tract. They are a common medical condition that affects people of all ages and genders, although they are more common in men than women. Kidney stones can cause severe pain and discomfort, leading to complications if left untreated.

Calcium oxalate is the most common type of kidney stone, but other types, such as struvite, uric acid, and cystine stones, can form. Risk factors for developing kidney stones include dehydration, a diet high in salt or protein, obesity, family history, certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease, and certain medications.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones Removal

Symptoms of kidney stones can include severe pain in the back, side, or groin, nausea and vomiting, blood in the urine, and a frequent urge to urinate. If a kidney stone becomes lodged in the urinary tract, it can block the flow of urine and cause further complications, such as infection or damage to the kidney.

Diagnosis of kidney stones typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, ultrasound, or CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and number of stones, as well as the patient’s overall health. Small stones may pass independently with increased fluid intake and pain medication, while larger stones may require medical intervention.

Prevention of kidney stones includes staying hydrated, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding certain foods and drinks that can increase the risk of stone formation, such as high-sodium foods, sugary drinks, and excessive amounts of protein. Some medications may also be used to prevent the formation of certain types of kidney stones.

Process of Kidney Stones Removal

The proceso de eliminación de cálculos renales varies depending on the size, location, and number of stones, as well as the patient’s overall health. Here is a general overview of the most common methods of kidney stone removal:

  1. Observation and management: If the kidney stones are small and not causing any significant discomfort, they may be observed and managed with pain medication and increased fluid intake to help the stones pass naturally.
  2. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): ESWL is a non-invasive procedure that uses shock waves to break up kidney stones into small pieces that can be easily passed. The patient is usually given a local anesthetic or sedative and lies on a table while a machine sends shock waves through the body to break up the stones.
  3. Ureteroscopy: Ureteroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure in which a small, flexible tube with a camera and surgical instruments is inserted into the urethra and passed through the bladder and up into the ureter to locate and remove the stone. This procedure is usually done under general anesthesia.
  4. Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL): PCNL is a more invasive procedure in which a small incision is made in the back to access the kidney and remove the stones. This procedure is typically reserved for larger or more complex stones that cannot be treated with ESWL or ureteroscopy.

After the kidney stones have been removed, the patient will typically be given pain medication and instructions on caring for themselves at home. They may also be advised to increase their fluid intake and make dietary changes to reduce the risk of future kidney stones.


While kidney stones removal can be painful and uncomfortable, but prompt diagnosis and treatment can help minimize complications and prevent future episodes. Patients who experience symptoms of kidney stones should seek medical attention to determine the best course of treatment for their individual needs.

It’s important to note that kidney stone removal procedures can carry some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs or tissues. Patients should discuss their risks and benefits with their doctor before undergoing any procedure.

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